Our Research & Studies
Researches and studies are very important parts of social work. They help us in understanding the situation and designing our interventions accordingly. They also help in understanding status of implementation of different laws, policies, programmes and schemes of the government and engaging with the administrative machinery to improve their formulation as well as implementation. Prayatn has, therefore, developed a dedicated cell for the purpose which undertakes such researches by involving internal as well as external experts. Student Interns have also been involved in such processes for their capacity building.
MAJOR RESEARCHES AND STUDIES
Undertaken by Prayatn
Prayatn has undertaken several researches and studies related with its thematic areas of intervention including women empowerment, child development, health and nutrition, livelihood development etc. Major researches and studies among them are summarized below:
The organization has undertaken two comprehensive researches in relation with the implementation of the PCPNDT Act which directly related with the issue of gender based discrimination and violence which is leading to decline in child sex ratio. The two researches were aimed at wider impact in the civil society by influencing changes at administrative level.
Research on Status and Effectiveness of PCPNDT Act in Rajasthan
Pre-Conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Misuse) Act, 1994 has been implemented in India to stop sex selection that takes place because of gender based discrimination. Since, child sex ratio was continuously declining and adequate social and administrative action was not visible, Prayatn undertook a comprehensive research on status and effectiveness of the Act across the entire state of Rajasthan. The research, which was funded by IFES-USAID was first of its kind and involved study across all the 33 districts of the state and involved visits to more than 300 medical diagnostic facilities; interactions with members of bodies formed under the Act like State Supervisory Board, Appropriate Authority, Advisory Committee; and representatives of civil society organizations. The report of the study was disseminated by Chairperson of Women Rights’ Commission in Rajasthan and several actions were taken by the State Government in accordance with the recommendations of the research.
Research and Review of Court Cases filed under the PCPNDT Act
The organization also undertook and research and review of court cases filed under the PCPNDT Act to find out reasons for low conviction rate in court cases filed under the Act. The research was a part of larger research commissioned by National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) to Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), New Delhi, for 18 states which in turn involved Prayatn for undertaking the same in 5 states – Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana – where child sex ratio is very low. The research involved study of formation and functioning of implementation structure as well as review of court cases filed under the Act to understand gaps in prosecution that affected conviction rate. A team consisting of legal and social experts was involved in this process.
Prayatn has undertaken multiple researches in the context of child development which include aspects like education, child protection etc. While some of these, like child rights situation analysis were aimed at developing understanding of situation for designing our own interventions others like studies on laws and schemes related with child protection were aimed at changes at wider level through subsequent engagement with child development and protection machinery.
Status of Legal Framework for Child Protection in Rajasthan
In 2017-18, Prayatn research on status of implementation of laws related with Child Protection like Juvenile Justice Act, Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act, Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, POCSO Act, Child Marriage Restraint Act. Under the study, status of formation and functioning of child protection machinery was studied across all the divisions of the state. On the other hand, some of the cases filed in court under the Act were also studied to understand how effectively the laws are being implemented and victims of child protection violations are getting justice. The research revealed gaps at both the levels and suggested ways to address the same.
Study of Child Protection Schemes in Rajasthan
Besides studying legal framework, Prayatn also undertook research on status of different Child Protection Schemes being implemented in Rajasthan to draw a more comprehensive picture. Details of different schemes being implemented by the state government in this regard were studied to understand their provisions, how they are being implemented and gaps in the same that need to be plugged. At primary level, it involved interactions with beneficiaries of different schemes and public servants responsible for their implementation. At secondary level, it involved review of budget allocation and expenditure incurred by the State government for the implementation of the same. This research too was undertaken in 2017.
Child Rights Situational Analysis
The organization has undertaken Child Rights Situational analysis in different locations to understand status of children in the context of child protection and other aspects of Child Rights. The study was undertaken in Dhaulpur district of Rajasthan in 2007, in Jhansi district of Uttar Pradesh in 2008. The studies helped us in understanding issues related with child development and protection like poor education of children, child labour, child marriage, child abuse, etc. and designing our interventions accordingly
Study to assess Child friendly status of government schools in Pratapgarh District of Uttar Pradesh State
Enrolment, retention and academic performance of children in education depends heavily upon how friendly is the environment of the school in which they are able to study. This friendliness is in terms of infrastructure as well as staff behavior. Children belonging to socio-economically backward classes are able to access education in government schools only. Prayatn, therefore, designed and undertook a study of government elementary schools in 24 villages of Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh to find out how child friendly is the school environment and made subsequent efforts at community as well as school level to address the issues that are found in the same. The study was conducted in 2013.
Prayatn has also undertaken several studies related with food security, health and nutrition, particularly, in the case of tribal communities. While some of these studies were aimed at developing in-depth understanding of the community and designing our own intervention in the context of the issue, others, like assessment of status of public facilities were aimed at inspiring administrative action.
Traditional versus Current Food Practices: A Study of Changing Food pattern among Sahariyas
This study tried to understand how food practices of Sahariya primitive tribe has changed over last few decades after settlement of the tribe in villages and their restrictions on their access to forest produce. This was undertaken in the backdrop of high incidence of malnutrition in the tribe, especially its children. The Study was undertaken in 2013 in Shahabad block of Baran district of Rajasthan and reflected relation in change in food practices and malnutrition in the children. Subsequent to the study, the organization made efforts to restore some of the traditional food practices that were better in terms of nutrition.
Status of and Access to Food Security Schemes: A case of Sahariya community
Absence of Food Security is one of the key issues that Sahariya tribe was facing in Shahabad block of Baran district of Rajasthan. This was in spite of enactment of several dedicated schemes of the government for them. The study conducted by Prayatn in 2013 covered multiple schemes including Public Distribution System, Midday Meal programme, MGNREGA, ICDS, Mawadi system etc. and helped us in understanding gaps in the implementation of the same. The study was followed by efforts to fulfilment of the gaps through community awareness building and institutional development on demand side and strategic engagement with the public machinery to plug gaps in the service supply side.
Assessment of Public Health and Nutrition Services
In 2016, Prayatn also undertook detailed assessment of health and nutrition related services like CHCs, PHCs, SHCs, MTCs, Anganwadis to see whether their infrastructure, human resource deployment and services are in line with guidelines of National Rural Health Mission or not. The gaps found in this process were shared with the government authorities and joint efforts were made to bridge the same.
The existing status of Malnutrition and identifying the gaps in it – a Study in Pratapgarh District of Uttar Pradesh
In 2013, Prayatn undertook study in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh to understand status of malnutrition in children in 0 to 5 years age-group as well as pregnant and lactating women, analyse corresponding causes and recommend remedial action to address the same. The helped us in designing our further intervention on the issue in the district.
The objective of studies related with livelihood was to explore livelihood related avenues available in the region and understand how these avenues can tapped through awareness and skill development of youth. Opportunities of wage as well self employment were explored in this process.
Assessment of the skill gaps and exploration of avenues for employment and skill development for youth
The study was undertaken in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh in 2013. Under the study, both demand, as well as, supply side of employment was studied. On supply side, opportunities of wage as well as self employment were studied while on the demand side aspirations and skills of youth were analysed. Accordingly skill development of youth was planned.
Need Assessment of STEP Programme in Jaipur
In 2011, Prayatn thought of initiating computer and other skill development center for under-preveleged youth living in sub-urban outskirts of Jaipur district. Before initiating the programme a need assessment was undertaken under which interest of youth for such courses and their aspirations were surveyed and analysed.